IPM: THE PRESENT DEMANDS IN AGRICULTURE

Prozzal Kumar Das and Kbd. Md. Hamidul Islam: Norman Borlaug, ‘father of the green revolution’ and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, assert that organic farming practices can at most feed four billion people and only after drastically expanding croplands. It is true that organic farming mostly comes from integrated pest management (IPM) and less depend upon chemicals (Crop Protection Agent- CPA) and fertilizers uses.  The integrated efforts control the pest and diseases in the crop production without excessive use of agrochemicals and save the environment and / or promotes healthy crop production are the main objectives of IPM. UN (United Nations) reported that by applying pesticides, it may be costed 90 billion US dollar for pesticide effects, as a result of health disorders and wounds in Sub-Sahara of Africa. UN also reported that IPM decreases less than 50% pesticide uses and also increases more than 10%  crop production. So, the present demands of IPM in agriculture is very much important for living being.
Benefits of IPM  :
1. Ensures food security.
2. Save beneficial insects, fish, frogs, birds, animals etc.
3. Harmful insects and pest can’t withstand in the fields.
4. Protects from environmental hazards.
5. Reduces cost of production.
Pest control methods:
A)Cultural methods: Change of sowing time (Stem borer), Deep ploughing and well harrowing (Nematodes and soil grubs), Flooding or Crop rotation (Orabanche), Resistant varieties (Black shank, TMV).
B)Mechanical methods: Hand picking (Cut worm), Shaking plants (White fly), Light traps (Moths), Attractant traps (Caterpillar), Heat, Sun light and Hot water (Nematodes), Bird perching (Caterpillar), Hand net (Grasshopper).
C)Biological methods: Predators (wolf spider), Parasites (Tricoma), Fungi (Metarhigium), Bacteria, Viruses (Baculoviridis), Botanicals(Bean Aphids a.i. Azadirachtin, Pyrithram).
D)Chemical methods: If there are no alternative way to control the pest (reach to Economic Threshold Level- ETL) then chemical methods can be apply such as contact pesticides, stomach poisons, systemic pesticides, fumigant action.
Five important elements of IPM  :
1.Save of beneficial insects.
2.Cultivate resistant varieties.
3.Use of modern cultivation methods.
4.Mechanical management.
5.Chemical management.
Some important beneficial insects, birds and animals: Tricograma, Lady bird beetle, Merid bug, Carabit beetle, Preying mandit, Spider, Fish, Frog, Heron. These beneficial insects, birds and animals are attack to the harmful insect and pest such as BLH, GLH, Leaf rolling caterpillar, Grasshopper, Stem borer and all flies.
Precautions:
1.Nobody is permitted to use, handle or apply CPA or other hazardous work such as fertilizers without using the required Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) such as mask, gloves, face shield, gum boots, apron etc. For this view, mask foundation (2008) distributed more than seventy thousand mask to the farmers and passerby.
2.No worker is enter the field where CPA have been applied unless and until it is save to health.
3. Persons who under the age of 18,  pregnant woman, nursing mothers and old man must not contact, handle or apply CPA.
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Prozzal Kumar Das  (Agronomist), Senior officer, Akij Group.
Kbd. Md. Hamidul Islam  (Plant Pathologist), Asst.  Leaf Officer, Akij Group.

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